The Emigration to the Oregon Country in 1842
Compiled by Stephenie Flora
List of Emigrants to Oregon in 1842
MC: Journal of Medorem Crawford
HB: Elijah White Party by Hubert Howe Bancroft
AA: Ten Years in Oregon, A.J.A. Allen
WG: The Road to Oregon, W.J. Ghent
LB: The Beginning of the West, Louise Berry
Five members of Elijah White's party of 1842 left first-hand accounts of the trip,
one of them in a diary, two in records a few years afterwards,
and two in recollections after they were old men.
Medoreum Crawford's Journal: An Account of His Trip Across the Plains with the
Oregon Pioneers [Journal of Medorem Crawford] of 1842 was published
in a pamphlet of 26 pages in 1897 by the University of Oregon.
Twenty-three year old Loren L. Hastings [Lansford W. Hastings] opposed to White
and replacing him as captain of the train, return to Cincinnati with
his manuscript but no money for printing it. He secured funds by joining up with a
Methodist preacher for a lecture tour, not on Oregon and California but
on temperance. His Emigrants Guide to Oregon and California, 152 pages,Cincinnati, 1845,
was reprinted in facsimile by the Princeton University Press
in 1932. Medorem Crawford marked his copy of the book with such expressions
as "Reckless exageration", "Absolutely false", "Bosh", "Silly lies",
"Phenomenal Lying", "Nonsense".
White's own version of the journey was given in Ten Years in Oregon, 399
pages, compiled by Miss A.J. Allen, Ithaca, New York, 1848.
F.X. Matthieu, who joined the train at Fort Laramie, dictated his
recollections of the trip to Samuel A. Clarke in the Oregonian 1886 and to
H.L. Lyman in the Oregon Historical Quarterly 1900. An interview with A.L.
Lovejoy by Henry R. Reed was printed as "Lovejoy's Pioneer Narrative" in the
Oregon Historical Quarterly 1930.
A juvenile novel on this emigration, Dog of the Pioneer Trail by Delia
Morris Stephenson, was published by Binfords & Mort in 1937.
Historical accounts of the journey were done by Hubert Howe Bancroft
in History of Oregon 1886 and by Samuel A. Clarke in Pioneer Days of Oregon
Elijah White Party
HB "Dr. Elijah White was familiar with the far end of the Oregon Trail,
but not with the trail itself. He had spent about three years as physician at
the Methodist Mission, until he quarreled with Jason Lee and returned to the
States in disgust. He had gone to and come back from Oregon by ship, not
overland by the long, long route of the trappers. The vast Oregon Country was
under so-called joint occupation, really pretty much in the hands of the
British through the Hudson's Bay Company. The few American settlers felt like
orphans in the wilderness. They wanted the United States to send somebody out
to give them and the Indians the protection of American law.]
After considerable discussion the government decided that as the United
States made pretensions to the territory lying between the Rocky Mountains and
the Pacific Ocean, they might venture to send a sub-Indian agent into the
country to look after the intercourse between the natives and the citizens of
the United States.
White was commissioned sub-Indian agent, with a salary of seven hundred
and fifty dollars. He was also verbally given permission to draw upon
government funds for the payment of necessary expenses in the discharge of his
duties. His instructions were to lose no time in returning to Oregon, but to
proceed at once overland, using by the way every reasonable effort to induce
immigrants to accompany him.
On reaching home, the doctor arranged his affairs and proceeded
westward, making known his desire to raise a company for Oregon wherever he
went, by advertising in the papers, and occasionally lecturing to interested
audiences. White gives the following glimpse of his emigration efforts: `Last
night all the other appointments were taken up to hear me lecture on Oregon,
and as the weather was fine and traveling good, the noble church was filled,
the pulpit lined with ministers of all denominations, and I talked an hour and
a half with all my might.'
At St. Louis everything relating to Oregon was heard with attention.
The farther he progressed in the direction of Independence, the former
recruiting rendezvous of the now disbanded fur companies, the greater was the
interest evinced. From the latter place White made excursions through the
country, from which a large number of immigrants were gained, while others
appeared at Elm Grove, the appointed rendezvous twenty miles southwest of
MC: May 2d "A meeting of all who are bound to Oregon was called to
decide whether to wait for a company from Platt; Decided to wait 12 days"
LB: May 4 "Assembled Oregon-bound emigrants left the Independence, Mo., area
on May 4; crossed into the Shawnee reserve and encamped at Elm Grove
(present Johnson county) to await late-comers."
MC: May 7 "3 more waggons came to camp."
MC: May 14 "Doctor came to camp with 36 Cattle."
LB: "Dr. Elijah White, chief promoter of the 1842 overland
emigration, and recently appointed as Oregon's first subagent of Indian
affairs, arrived from Independence on the 14th."
HB: "By the 14th of May, 1842, one hundred and twelve persons
were assembled, fifty-two being men over eighteen years of age.
Most prominent were White, aged thirty-five, first captain
of the train, and Lansford W. Hastings, captain the rest of the time,
with little use for each other and splitting the company into factions.
Medorem Crawford, who became a teacher, ferryman, legislator, Lincoln
appointee; and F.X. Matthieu, joining the train at Fort Laramie, a
former clerk of the American Fur Company. These four left accounts of
the emigration. A.L. Lovejoy, one of the founders of Portland; Sidney
Walter Moss who surveyed Oregon City for Dr. John McLoughlin, ran a
hotel there, and claimed he was author of the first Oregon novel, The
Prairie Flower; Stephen H.L. Meek, brother of the famous Joe Meek and
later guide on Meek's Horrible Cut-Off; the two McKay boys, grandsons of
Mrs. John McLoughlin; three Smiths, one with comely daughters whom the
Sioux braves very much wanted to buy. From Fort Laramie to Fort Hall,
the guide at a fee of $500 was the celebrated Thomas Fitzpatrick, who
had guided the Bidwell party the year before."
"The resolutions adopted were substantially as follows: That
every male over 18 years of age should be provided with one mule or
horse, or wagon conveyance. Should have one gun, 3 pounds of powder, 12
pounds of lead, 1,000 caps, or suitable flints; 50 pounds of flour or
meal, 30 pounds of bacon, and a suitable proportion of provisions for
women and children. That White should show his official appointment.
That they elect a captain for one month. That there be elected a
scientific corps of three persons to keep a records of everything
concerning the road and journey that might be useful to the government
or future emigrants. Elected were a pilot and a secretary; appointed
were a blacksmith, master wagon-maker, and master road and bridge
builder. That a code of laws be drafted and submitted to the company,
and they they be enforced by reprimand, fines, and final banishment.
That there be no progane swearing, obscene conversation, or immoral
conduct allowed in the company, on pain of expulsion. That the names of
every man, woman, and child be registered by the secretary." HB
LB: "Officers were elected on May 15--White as captain (to serve
for one month; Columbia Lancaster, Lansford W. Hastings, and Asa L.
Lovejoy as a scientific corps; James Coates as pilot; Nathaniel Crocker
as secretary; Hugh Burns as master blacksmith; and John Hoffstutter as
master wagonmaster. Dr. Elijah White (a Methodist missionary in Oregon,
1837-1840) had never crossed the Rocky mountains. Traveling in his care
were two homeward-bound half-Chinook youths--John and Alexander McKay,
sons of Hudson's Bay Company's Thomas McKay--who had journeyed over the
Oregon trail (en route to Eastern schools) in 1838, with Missionary
MC: May 16 "Left camp at 1 o'clock E. drove 15 mi. and camped at 7 o'c.
E. on the Sanafe rout, found water pleanty, wood & pasture scarce. In
our company were 16 waggons & 105 persons including children & men over
18 years of age."
HB: "The train of eighteen large Pennsylvania wagons, with a long
procession of horses, packmules, and cattle, set out on the 16th, White
having been elected to the command for one month from the time of
According to regulations, camp was made at four o'clock every
afternoon when wood and water were convenient. After the wagons had
been drawn up so as to form a circular enclosure, the animals were
turned loose to feed till sunset, when they were brought in and tethered
to stakes set about the camp.
Every family had its own fire and prepared meals in its own
fashion. The evening was spent in visiting, singing, and whatever
innocent amusement suggested itself. The women and children slept in
the covered wagons, and the men under tents on the ground.
A guard was stationed at night. At dawn, at a given signal,
everyone arose and went about his duties, the cattle being collected
while breakfast was being prepared. When all was ready, the wagon which
had taken the lead the previous day was sent to the rear, so that each
in rotation should come to the front."
MC: May 17 "1 more wagon and 3 men came on."
MC: May 18 "A violent rain this morning much excitement in camp about
Dogs: 22 dogs shot, stoped raining about 9 o'c."
HB: "At this point White startled the company by officially
recommending that all the dogs in camp be forthwith killed lest they
should go mad upon the arid plains which they were now approaching.
King Herod's edict anent the slaughter of the innocents could scarcely
have called forth a louder wail of lamentation from the mothers of Judea
than was evoked from the women and children of White's party by this
proposed immolation of their canine pets and companions. Many of the
men, too, protested loudly against the sacrifice. Although when it came
to a vote most of them yielded to their leader's wish, yet the measure
was so unpopular that it contributed largely to the election of L.W.
Hastings as captain at the end of the first month."
AA: "Here, by a two-thirds vote, it was determined to kill all the
dogs of the company, having been informed that, in crossing the
mountains and their vicinity, these animals were apt to become rabid, as
timber was scarce, and consequently water which they so much required in
the heats of summer on the scorching plains. The arrangement did not at
all accord with the feelings of the ladies, and caused the first serious
disturbance since leaving the States. While the destruction was going
on, the poor creatures would run to their mistresses for protection,
crying most piteously. Even the men, while engaged in their task, found
their hearts were not sufficiently steeled to permit its performance
without feelings of sorrow and regret. However, the recollection of a
freshly related account of the mad wolf which had bitten eleven of two
encampments, strengthened their fortitude. The death of the dogs was
preferred to those of their herds, and perhaps members of their
families, and they went resolutely about the work, amid the cries and
screams of the women and children, as well as the victims."
AG: "The Emigration of 1842 really begins the epic of the
settlement of Oregon....It was a party of divergent wills, and it had a
stormy time. There was evidently too many dogs in the party, and at a
meeting it was resolved to kill all of them. They would all go mad on
the plains, it was argued, and even if they didn't they would be sure,
by their barking and growling, to acquaint any prowling Indians with the
fact that here was a party to be plundered. The counter argument that
their barkind would also apprise the emigrants of the presence of
Indians did not apparently, carry sufficient weight, and a motion was
passed that all the dogs be shot. Medorem Crawford, in his journal, and
Miss A.J. Allen, the author of the book of White's travels, [the two
authorities just quoted], say that the dogs--a total of twenty-two--were
killed. Hastings, however, [later captain of the company] says that the
motion produced a great deal of ill-feeling; that after a few were
killed on ownder after another declared that any man attempting to shoot
his dog would himself be shot, and that as a consequence the execution
stopped then and there."
MC: May 20 "All gone ahead except 3 wagons who are detained with a sick
MC: May 21 "Mrs. Lancaster's only child a daughter 16 months old died
10 o'clock M the Doctor called the disease symptomatick fever
accompanied with worms." After burying child we started and drove 6
HB: "At this camp Columbia Lancaster lost a child, and as the
mother was ill, the disheartened parents turned back."
LB: "On May 21 the Columbia Lancasters' 16-month-old daughter
died and was buried (in present Douglas county)."
LB: May 16 "The night of May 26 camp was on Vermillion creek. From the
27th to the 30th Mrs. Lancaster's illness delayed the company. The
Lancasters turned back; and were escorted to the Kansas crossing by
Captain White and others."
MC: May 27 "Mrs. Lancaster verry sick & unable to travil. Part of the
company unwilling to wait & went on, much dissatisfaction in the camp.
Capt. White rode on and found the company about 8 miles ahead they
agreed to wait until Sunday morning for Mr. Lancaster."
MC: May 28 "Mrs Lancaster some better."
MC: May 29 "Sunday Mrs. Lancaster is verry low, much dissatisfaction in
the camp, some want to go on and some want to stay. 3 wagons went on 2
MC: May 30 "All the wagons except Mr. Lancaster started at 1/2 past 6
o'clock M. cool wind. Mr. Lancaster concluded to take his wife back.
Capt. White and others accompany him to the K. river."
MC: June 3 "The company started at 5 oclock M. & left myself with 3
others to wait for Mr. Burns and others who were detained by Mr.
MC: June 4 "Started at 6 o'clock M. intending to go back to the Blue
River & there stay for Mr. Burns. Met Mr. Burns & his company together
with O'Fallen (William O. Fallon) 2 miles back, turned & came on with
MC: June 11 "Difficulty between Doct. White & John Force."
MC: June 15 "The month for which Capt. White was elected being up the
company elected Mr. Hastings by a majority of 12 over Mr. Meek."
MC: June 16 "More difficulty and misunderstanding in the company. Doct.
White with a few others concluded to leave."
MC: June 17 "The majority of the company started at 8 o'clock under
Capt. Hastings. Two waggons and 13 men remained Capt. Fallen. Started
at 11 o'clock passed the other party and camped at 6 o'clock. They
passed us again and camped 3 miles ahead...."
MC: June 18 "Capt. H. 2 miles ahead. For 2 days we have seen no
Buffalo. Capt. Fallen brought us some meat."
MC: June 20 "Capt. Hastings & comp. crossed over the river & we followed
MC: June 22 "Capt. Fallen & Esq. Crocker went on to Fort L. verry warm."
HB: "After Hastings was elected to succeed White, harmony no
longer prevailed. The determination of the new commander to `govern and
not be governed' divided the party into two factions, who marched in
separate columns till Fort Laramie was reached on the 23rd of June.
Here they spent a week in refitting. During that time Mr. Bissonette,
in charge of the post, managed to bring about a reunion by urging that
the company would need its full strength while passing through the
hostile tribes between Laramie and Fort Hall.
As the emigrants were told that it would be impossible for
them to take their oxen and wagons through to Oregon, many sold or
exchanged them for horses, the advantage being generally on the side of
the fort people. They also laid in a fresh stock of provisions for
which they had to pay at the rate of a dollar a pint for flour, and a
dollar a pound for coffee and sugar.
Before leaving Laramie the company was joined by F.X.
Matthieu and half a dozen Canadians, who had been in the service of the
fur company east of the Rocky Mountains, and were not going to settle in
Oregon. They had few supplies but depended on game for susistence.
[They went supperless the first night out, as Matthieu
recalled in his reminiscences fifty-eight years later. They could not
but look on with a little envy and self-commiseration at the various
campfires where the immigrants were despatching fried bacon and mountain
biscuit and drinking coffee. Matthieu also recalled what four of the
leading men of the party were like--White `a sleek looking gentleman; a
quick talker'; sandy complexioned Amos L. Lovejoy `move quick tempered
than any man I ever knew'; Captain Hastings of heavy build and swarthy
complexion; Captain Fitzpatrick, the guide, a tall spare, gray-haired
Irishman of gentlemanly bearing, at home anywhere in the mountains or on
the prairies, but very taciturn.]"
MC: June 30 "Difficulty between Doct. White and Capt. Fallen. Fallen
refused to go with us. Remained here all day."
MC: July 2 "Joined the other company under Capt. Hastings."
MC: July 3 "Sunday Entered what is called the Black Hills. Traviled 15
miles over bad road without seeing water. Mr. Fitch Patrick employed as
guide came to camp."
MC: July 9 "Second trial of Mr. Moss for not standing guard. Jury
could not agree."
MC: July 13 "Camped at sunset on Sweet Water, traviled 20 m. Baily shot
while walking through camp by accidental discharge of a gun from a
wagon, he lived about one hour."
MC: July 14 "Buried Baily near Independence Rock 1/2 mile from camp. My
feelings on this occasion can hardly be described. A young man in the
vigor of youth and health taken from our company wraped in a Buffalo
Robe & and buried in this dismal Prairie. What sad tidings for his
Parents & friends who like my own are far from here."
HB: "He, poor fellow [said White], died in thirty minutes. He
was a useful man, and it gave a dreadful shock to us all. The next day
at eight o'clock, as there was no clergyman, I was called upon to
deliver a funeral discourse, near Independence Rock, in the midst of the
mountains. While I talked to all the company, who went on foot a mile
to the grave, a general weeping prevailed among us. When, in the course
of my brief solemn lecture, I said, `Let us pray,' to my astonishment
nearly every man, woman and child dropped upon their knees to implore
the divine blessing and protection. It was the most solemn funeral by
far that any of us ever attended or probably ever will."
MC: July 15 "Today Capt. Hastings month being up himself and Lieu
Lovejoy were re-elected.
HB: "While at Independence Rock, where some of the party were
ambitious to inscribe their names, Hastings and Lovejoy, who had fallen
behind, were cut off by a party of Sioux. They narrowly escaped to camp
after several hours of detention, the savages following and being met by
Fitzpatrick, who succeeded in arranging matters.
`We were treated with the utmost rudeness [said Hastings of
their situation after they climbed down from carbing their names to find
themselves captured.] Our guns and pistols were taken from us, when we
were compelled to sit upon the ground, surrounded by a numerous guard
who performed its whole duty, not permitting us to change our positions
in any manner, either to avoid danger or acquire comfort. From the time
we were taken, every additional party that arrived invariably offered
some indignity to our persons, either by striking or attempting to
strike us with their bows, arrows, or the rammers of their guns. The
chief, however, protected me from this insult, for which purposes he
constantly stood or sat by me; yet he appeared unable or unwilling to
protect my companion, who was repeatedly stricken with much violence.'"
"A great band of Sioux developed out of the prairied [said
Matthieu], galloping in wild fashion upon their ponies or in large part
running on foot...in full war dress and paint. Lovejoy and Hastings
were among them, being held as captives and looking very much
crestfallen. They had delayed, as it seems, in boyish spirit, to
inscribe their names among others on the face of Independence Rock; and
having just completed their task, had turned to go only to find
themselves in the embrace of some very large Indians. [They wanted
ammunition, not to fight the whites but other Indians; when this was
given to them they surrendered Hastings and Lovejoy.]
MC: July 16 "Mr. Bennitt's Daughter slightly wounded by an accidental
discharge of a gun."
MC: July 20 "Indians take 2 horses from Binnit's son & Weston. Capt. &
several others went out to see if they had any of our men several of
whom were out yet. All came in safe. False alarm in the night."
HB: "At this place all remained for several days to hunt buffalo
and dry the meat. The Sioux who infested the country in considerable
numbers caused the hunters great annoyance, frequently robbing them of
both horses and game, though they were kept at a safe distance from
camp. The last that was seen of them was on a tributary of the
Sweetwater, where the principal chiefs were invited to camp and
conciliated with presents.
[Matthieu, through two historians, said of this period of
Indian embarrassment: `About five or six thousand of the Blackfoot
Sioux, under a great war chief, appeared. By this immense multitude the
train was compelled to hald and to be inspected by band after band of
the curious savages. They were especially curious to look at the women
of the train.' The braves came cautiously to Smith's tent, pulled the
flaps apart, and gazed in silent admiration upon his wife and daughters.
Smith appealed to Matthieu to get rid of them. `All but one young fellow
withdrew. He said he wanted to have a talk with the old chief (Smith)
and inquired every moment what Smith said about him. At last Matthieu
explained to Smith that the Sioux warrior offered twenty horses for his
choice of his girls. Smith exclaimed, `The Brute!' Matthieu then
explained to the savage that it was not the custom among whites to sell
their women. The Sioux was ready for him then, for he remarked that `he
knew that the white men bought Indian girls, and why not have the rule
work both ways?' He gave up the trade and went away reluctantly."]
"As soon as they were clear of the enemy, White and a dozen
others who were well mounted pushed on before, taking Fitzpatrick with
them. This left Hastings in charge of the heavier portion of the train,
without a guide, and accordingly caused much dissatisfaction."
MC: July 21 "Brown lost a horse [,] leg broke by a kick."
MC: July 31 "Sunday. Rainy morning Started 7. Commenced raining verry
cold & unpleasant. Considerable decending ground. Camped on the creek
at 3 o'clock traviled 15 miles. Much talk about dividing the company at
MC: August 1 "Commenced raining soon rained moderately crossed Green
River and camped 11 o'clock traviled 6 miles. Some of the company
preparing to pack from here..."
HB: "At Green River another division occurred. About half the
original number of wagons was still retained; and now a part persisted
in cutting up their wagons and making pack saddles, and traveling
henceforth with horses."
MC: August 2 "Cold wet morning some making pack saddles and others
repairing waggons determined to take them through."
MC: August 3 "Capt. Hastings with 8 waggons started at 8 o'clock, Meek
pilot. The best wagons were taken on 2 were left standing the rest
destroyed to repair others. In our camp there is 27 men, Mr.
Fitchpatrick Captain and Pilot. Finished making packsaddles cashed
goods and preparing to start tomorrow."
MC: August 4 "All started with pack animals at 8 o'clock had verry little
trouble on the way arrived at Ham's Fork of Green River at 4 1/2
o'clock. Camped good grass and wood traviled 20 miles in a different
direction from that which the waggons took.
MC: August 5 "...saw some of Capt. H. company the waggons camped 2 miles
behind us last night. Said they had to leave one waggon the first day."
MC: August 8 "Two accidents this afternoon by falling from horses [,] not
MC: August 16 "Capt. H. with seven waggons came in. [Fort Hall]"
HB: "Heavy rainstorms hindered both parties, who arrived at Fort
Hall about the same time. Here the emigrants were kindly received by
Grant, who sold them flour for half the price paid at Laramie, taking in
payment the running-gear of the wagons, which all agreed to dispense
The company remained at Fort Hall about ten days, except
White's party, who started a few days in advance. They lost a man, Adam
Horn, the unfortunate cause of Bailey's death, at the crossing of Snake
River below Salmon Falls."
MC: August 21 "Sunday. Concluded to wait for the Company as some are not
satisfied to go without a Pilot. Company passed about 1 o'clock. We
packed up and started found them Camped about three miles on the River.
Mr. McDonald came up soon."
MC: August 23 "Started early drove fast. H.B. Company arrived 1 1/2 hours
before us our cattle verry much fatigued concluded not to try to keep up
with the H.B. Company with our cattle..... Doct. White left us for the
H.B. Company whom he intends to go with to Fort Vancouver. Only 8 men
left in our Company without a Pilot."
MC: August 24 "Giger and others passed with many animals."
MC: Sept 3 "...arrived at Fort Boyzea [Boise]"
MC: Sept 4 "Concluded to stay here & let our cattle & horses rest
today. Two of our company getting impatient left us this morning spent
the day repairing , washing, &c."
MC: Sept 7 "...got a fall from a horse hurt my foot some."
MC: Sept 8 "The country over which we have traviled to day is mostly
covered with Bunch Grass which the Horses are very fond of. We at last
found the top of the mountain at a distance we could see what we suppose
to be the Blue mountains and they struck us with terror their lofty
peaks seemed a resting place for the clouds. Below us was a large plain
and at some distance we could discover a tree wheich we at once
recognized as `the lone tree' of which we had before heard. We made all
possible speed and at 7 1/2 o'clock the advance party arrived at the
Tree nearly an hour before the cattle. The Tree is a large Pine
stand[ing] in the midst of an immense plain intirely alone. It
presented a truly singular appearance and I believe is respected by
every traviler through this almost Treeless Country."
MC: Sept 14 "Our Indian Guide told use we would get to Dr. Whitman's
today but we hardly expected it as our animals were verry much jaded.
But it was nearer than we expected and we arrived at 3 o'clock and
camped near his house traviled 8 m.
Dr. Whitman is a Missionary of the Presbyterian Order he has been in the
Country six years. He has a verry compforable house and is farming to a
considerable extent. He has a Thrashing Machine & a grinding mill all
under one roof driven by water power. Many Indians around him. I was
never more pleased to see a house or white people in my life, we were
treated by Dr. and Mrs. Whitman with the utmost kindness. We got what
provision we wanted on very reasonable terms. I have just heard of the
Death of young man who started from Independence with us. He was with
the Hudson Bay Company and got drowned himself and horse crossing the
Snake River soon after he left us. What is to me remarkable [,] it was
his gun and by an accident of his hand that put an end to poor Baily at
MC: Sept 15 "Having recd verry bad treatment from the Indians we
concluded to get away from here as soon as possible & try to find more
grass, some of our company started before noon but we could not get
ready until 3 1/2 oclock when we started down about 4 miles and found
the rest of the company camped in an excellent spot. Forces came up
also after dark."
MC: Sept 16 "Visited the Fort [Walla Walla] saw Esqr Crocker, Doct.
White had left before noon in the Companies boat. All the foremost
company had gone by land except Esqr. & Moss who started this evening to
MC: Sept 20 "Mr. Spaulding & Lady over took us at noon... Mr. Gray
called at camp on his return from Vancouver."
HB: "White, who appears to have been anxious to reach the
settlements as early as possible, arrived at Vancouver about the 20th of
September. Considering the circumstances of his departure from Oregon,
it was but natural that he should have some feeling of self-importance
and exultation on returning as the first officer of the United States
appointed in that country.
[White, with his predilection for laws, worked out whas was
called the White Code for the behavior of the Indians. It had eleven
articles. Article 9 showed he had not yet got over his prejudice
against dogs: `Those only may keep dogs who travel, or live among the
game; if a dog killed a lamb, a calf or any domestic animal, the owner
shall pay the damage and kill the dog.'"]
MC: Sept 21 "Started at 10 o'clock and parted with Mr. & Mrs. Spalding
who in consequence of some intelligence from Mr. Gray resolved to
MC: Sept 25 "Arrived at Mt. Perkins at 3 o'clock, found our company
there, traviled 8 miles. Mr. Perkins preached in camp this evening."
MC: Sept 26 "Visited Mr. Perkins at his house. Was verry kindly rec'd
and hospitably treated, got potatoes &c. and started at 1 o'clock with
an Indian Guide, rose a long hill and left the river, traviled over the
most romantic country I have yet seen."
MC: Sept 29 "My horses looked so bad I got one of the Indian horses to
ride, started early without eating a particle, found the road horrible
beyond description, met John Force soon who said he had lost 2 horses &
was in search. The company had all tied up their horses to trees except
the two that he had lost."
MC: Oct 1 "My horse cannot be found this morning, 3 out of 5 of our riding
animals give out so we have to start on foot. Doct. Whites American
mare verry near giving out, found some grass and stopped at noon,
traviled 5 miles. Concluded to stay here tonight."
MC: Oct 4 "Mr. Jones & a man by name of Cooke much injured by blasting
rocks, drove on and overtook our pack."
HB: "From Waiilatpu the emigrants proceeded without accident to
the Willamette Valley, which they reached on the 5th of October, some by
Daniel Lee's cattle trail from The Dalles, and others by the trail on
the north of the Columbia, swimming their cattle to the south side when
opposite the mouth of Sandy River.
MC: Oct 5 "Camped in the settlements at the house of a Frenchman who treated
us verry kindly, traviled 10 m."
MC: Oct 8 "Went to the mill with Mrs. & Miss Brown. Mr. Benitt and Pomeroy
together with several young men arrived in the settlement."
MC: Oct 9 "Sunday. Attended church twice today."
MC: Oct 10 "Mr. Pomeroy returned to the Falls. I crossed the River to
see the country, stayed all night with Mr. O'Neil."
MC: Oct 11 "Rainy morning cleared off soon. Crossed the River & stayed
all night at the Doct. House."
MC: Oct 13 "Went with Mr. Shortess & Doct. Babcock to Youngs valley.
Beautiful country, returned and wrote to my Father."
Act of money Recd by Crawford for
N. Ford 5.00
J. Garrison 3.00
Amos Cook 5.00
A.D. Smith 12.00
I. Jones 7.50
W. Rice .50
C. Reed .50
E. Garrison 1.00
H. Campbell 3.00
B. Williams 1.25
E. Garrison 3.00
Catholic Mission 3.00
A. Hembree .75
L.H. Judson 1.50
Thos. Smith 1.00
Blackfoot & Brener 8.00
John Campbell 2.50
P. Armstrong 5.00
Act of money recd by O'Neil for
G. Hines 5.00
E. White 7.50
D. Waldo 2.36
R. Shortess 5.00
L.D. Keyser 13.00
J. Garrison 2.20
J. Manning 5.00
J. Applegate 5.00
Dr. Babcock 3.00
A. Beers 5.00
B. Williams 3.70
G. Gay 10.00
R. M'Cary 5.00
Thos. Cockram 5.00
Francis Fletcher 5.00
Accountt of Potatoes taken by Crawford:
Accountt of Corn ears taken by Crawford:
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