Compiled by Stephenie Flora
copyright � 2004
Esther Lorinda Bewley, 21; emigrant of 1847; ill, d/o John W. and Catherine [Ellis] Bewley; after her release she stayed in Oregon City for a time, m'd William CHAPMAN and moved to Yamhill County, where she lived with her husband and children until her death November 6, 1899. Mother of (John Marcellus 1850-1926, Catherine Lavina 1852-1937, Eusebia Jane 1854-1884, Lenora J. 1856-1929, Mary Miranda 1858-1943, Isabella 1860-1863, Frank B. 1861-1941, Nettie Grant 1865-1962, Charles W. 1867-1877 and Fredrick A. 1872-1952).
Crockett Bewley, 22, KILLED; emigrant of 1847; ill with measles, s/o John W. and Catherine [Ellis] Bewley; beat to death with slats from his bed ten days after the massacre.
Mary Ann Bridger (1835-1848), 12; recovering from measles, was in kitchen at time of massacre, died a few months after she was rescued and taken to Oregon City; was the half-indian daughter of mountain man, Jim Bridger; Mary had been left at the mission to attend school in August of 1841 at the age of six years. �Mary A. Bridger, daughter of Captain Bridger of Fort Bridger, aged about 13 years, died at the residence of Mr. A.L. Hedges in this city.� [Oregon Spectator Mar 23, 1848 p.3:6]
William D. Canfield, Adult, 37; after the attack William Canfield hid in the loft of the adobe blacksmith shop. When dark fell he started on his way towards Lapwai where he found shelter. After the release of the hostages the Canfields lived in the Washington area for a time before moving to Sonoma County, CA where they lived out the remainder of their lives. Father of (Nathan Lee 1829-1835, Ellen S., 1831-1865, Oscar F. 1838-1926, Clarissa 1840-?, Sylvia Ann 1842-1854, Albert 1845-?, William D. 1848-1849 and Julia 1850-1850).
Mrs. Sallie Ann (Lee) Canfield, Adult, 37, lived in the Washington area for a time before moving to Sonoma County, CA where she lived out her life. Mother of (Nathan Lee 1829-1835, Ellen S., 1831-1865, Oscar F. 1838-1926, Clarissa 1840-?, Sylvia Ann 1842-1854, Albert 1845-?, William D. 1848-1849 and Julia 1850-1850).
Ellen S. Canfield, 16; Ellen married a Mr. Salsbury and was shown living in Sonoma Co, CA in 1860. She died at the age of 34 on July 12, 1865 in Sonoma Co, CA.
Oscar Fitzallen Canfield, 8; Oscar married Cynthia Ann Maple in 1861 and resided in Sonoma Co, CA until 1880 when he moved to Idaho where he remained until his death Oct 8, 1926. Father of (Mary 1866-?, Sherman 1868-?, Sallie Augusta 1873-?, Oscar Berton 1874-?, Charles Oliver 1875-?, Nathan 1878-? and Joseph L. 1879-?)
Clarissa Canfield, 7; Clarissa is shown as Clare and Clara in many documents. She married James H. Knowles and resided in Sonoma Co, CA. She died sometime after 1910. Mother of one son (William H. Knowles 1858-?)
Sylva Ann Canfield, 5; Sylva Ann died at the age of 12 on Feb 4, 1854 in Sonoma Co, CA
Albert Canfield, 2; Albert married Matilda Baker and lived in Sonoma Co, CA until about 1880 when he is shown living in Idaho. He died there after the 1880 census. Father of two sons, (William 1872-? and Albert 1875-?)
David Malin Cortez, 9, (c1838- ) son of a Cree mother and a Spanish father; brought to the mission in 1841 as a small boy by his grandmother who wanted to be rid of him; Narcissa adopted him and after the massacre Nicholas Finley escorted him to Fort Walla Walla where he was left with the priests. The mission family had been the only real family he had known and as the survivors pulled away from shore he was seen crying in despair at being left behind. It is not know what happened to him
Isaac Gilliland, Adult, KILLED; emigrant of 1847; bachelor, had been driver for Judge Saunders, was a tailor and had been hired to make the doctor a Sunday suit; was killed as he sat sewing in his room.
Peter D. Hall, Adult; 31, m'd 1836 Rachel Eliza Huff; successfully escaped to Fort Walla Walla where he asked William McBean for help. McBean, choosing to stay neutral, gave him some food and a boat. It was later reported that Hall was killed by Indians after leaving the fort. His body reportedly washed up on shore and later accounts said he had been scalped.
Mrs. Rachel Eliza (Huff) Hall, Adult,31; (1816-1865) m1. 1836 Peter HALL; m2. 1850 Robert Beer; died at 49 years of age
Gertrude Jane Hall, 10, (1837-1933) m1. 1853 Capt. Leonard White; m2. 1868 Owen Nickerson Denny; usually found using her middle name; she married the second time prior to the death of her first husband so it can be assumed that they divorced at some point. Lived in China for a time when her second husband was Consul General from the United States.
Mary Catherine Hall, 8; (1839-1874): m'd 1854 William SMITH; spent most of life in Marion County
Ann Eliza Hall, 6; (1841-1864): m'd 1856 Almanzo Holland; died at 23 years of age
Rebecca Hall, 3; (1844-1909) m1. 1860 Philander Johnson Cone; m2. 1892 James Hopkins
Rachel Maria Hall, 1; (1846-1866) m'd 1863 Granville H. Rood; died at 20 years of age
Mrs. Rebecca Hayes, Adult; emigrant of 1847; it has been stated that her husband had died on the trail but no mention has been found in any diaries to substantiate this claim. Whether it is true or not it appears she arrived alone except for her children. After the massacre it appears she dropped out of sight. There are several references to a Rebecca Hayes living in the Oregon Territory but upon examination the references are to a much younger woman. It is possible she died of her ordeal or that she remarried.
Henry Clay Hayes, (1845-aft 1900): there is a Henry C. Hayes that appears in the 1870 California census. His occupation is photographer.
Napoleon Hayes,(c1847-Dec1847); Most published accounts state that Mrs. Hayes had but one son, a four-year-old named Henry Clay. However, Catherine Sager Pringle and Nathan Kimball both state in reminiscences that there were two children when Mrs. Hays arrived, but that one of them died shortly after her arrival.
Jacob Hoffman, Adult, KILLED; emigrant of 1847; bachelor; was butchering a beef and died trying to defend himself with the ax he was holding.
Nathan S. Kimball, Adult, 40 (1807-1847), KILLED; helping Hoffman butcher the beef, was wounded and ran to mission house, later, he disguished himself as an Indian and went to the river to get water for the children. On his way back he was discovered and killed.
Mrs. Harriet (Sanborn) Kimball, Adult, 38 (1809-1892); after the death of her husband she married John Jewett 16 Apr 1848. Two of her children had died on the trail in 1847. Besides the remaining children listed below Harriet had two more children by her second husband.
Susan M. Kimball, 16, (1831-1905); m'd August C. Wirt 15 Aug 1850. She settled in Clatsop County with her husband and children. She was the mother of five children (John Kimball, Harriet M., Ione S., Omar Byron and Olive.)
Nathan M. Kimball 12,(1835- ); m'd Lucinda Niles in 1861 and settled in Clatsop County.
Byron S. Kimball, 8, (1839-1899); settled inClatsop County
Sarah Sophia Kimball, 6, (1841-1917): m'd 1859 Joel Wilson Munson
Mina Ann Kimball, 1 (1846-1938): m1. 1860 Isaac Boggs; m2. 1867 Alexander J. Megler
LYMAN see MARSH Notes:
Alba Lyman: (1845-1866): s/o Walter and Jane (Marsh) Lyman; 2 year old grandson of Walter Marsh. There has been some confusion between a younger son of Mrs. Rebecca Hayes and Alba Lyman which resulted in many years without Alba being recognized as a survivor. It appears Mrs. Hayes' young son died soon after arrival and that Alba was the small boy sometimes identified as him.
John Duncan Manson, 11, (1836-1903) m;d Aurelia Yale; son of Donald Manson of the Hudson Bay Co., Nicholas Finley escorted them to Fort Walla Walla after the massacre. John joined the Hudson Bay Company and was the clerk at Fort Fraser 1855-1862
Stephen Manson, 13, (c1834-aft 1880); never married; son of Donald Manson of the Hudson Bay Co., Nicholas Finley escorted them to Fort Walla Walla after the massacre. Stephen is found living at Champoeg with his siblings through 1880. He was described as remarkably handsome with a bright intellect.
Walter Marsh, Adult, KILLED; s/o Lemuel and Rosanna (Warner) Marsh, emigrant of 1847; hired to operate the gristmill; shot as he ran from the gristmill where he had been working.
Marsh grandchild, 2; see Alba Lyman
Mary E. Marsh, 11; d/o Walter and Lavisa Marsh, mother had died at Soda Springs during emigration of 1847 and was wrapped in her bed and buried along the trail. By 1848 Mary was living with Mrs. Asa Lovejoy. Mary married James Pulliam Cason on 25 Dec 1853 near Oregon City. Mary and James had 10 children. James Cason died 06 Sep 1887 in Gilliam Co, OR. Mary died at Spray, Wheeler Co, OR on 06 Apr 1907. Cason Canyon in Morrow County was named for them.[per Jon Ridgeway at JNCRIDGE@aol.com]
Helen Mar Meek, 10; the young daughter of Joseph Meek and an Indian woman, arrived at the Whitman Mission in 1840. Helen died Dec 8, 1847. She had been quite ill and it was thought she might not live by Doctor Whitman but her death was certain without the care he could have given her. Joseph Meek never forgave the Cayuse
Josiah Osborne, Adult; originally emigrants of 1845, had worked for Dr. Whitman before and had recently returned from the Willamette Valley with his family to help build a gristmill; hid with his family in a shallow space beneath the boards of the floor. After darkness, escaped with family on foot for Fort Walla Walla. After it became obvious that his wife and children could not make the distance he hid them and hurried to the fort where he obtained a horse and some food. He returned for them and took them to the fort where they stayed until they were rescued.
Mrs. Marguerite Osborne, Adult; pregnant with fourth child that was born 14 Nov 1847. The baby died after a few hours and was buried in the mission cemetery.
Nancy A. Osborne, 9; Nancy Osborn was five years old when the family came west in 1845. She experienced the massacre, escaped with her family, and grew up to live a full life in Portland, OR. When she was quite old, living in Portland, she jumped through a second story window to her death screaming "The Indians are coming to kill us".
Salvijane Osborne; Salvijane was very ill with measles. She died 24 Nov, 1847 just prior to the massacre and was buried in the mission cemetery..
John L. Osborne
Alexander A. Osborne, 2
Andrew Rodgers, Adult, KILLED; Andrew Rodgers had emigrated to Oregon in 1845 with a friend who was already seriously ill with tuberculosis. The Whitman's took the sick man in and nursed him but the disease was too far adavanced and the patient died. The Whitmans asked Rodgers to stay on as the mission teacher. He soon won the respect and affection of the students. He played the violin and sang. Together Narcissa and Rodgers sang many a duet to the delight of the mission. He taught the children to sing and formed a choir for Sunday services. Catherine described him as "a young man of about twenty-five, tall and slender, with a thin, sallow complexion, denoting bad health. His hair was sandy from which he derived his Indian name, Hushus Muk Muk (Yellow Head)." His health remained good and eventually quit as teacher at mission to continue his ministry studies. During the massacre he was wounded while down by river and ran to the mission house. Later, after Narcissa was talked into surrendering, he accompanied her downstairs and was shot; he lay outside in the mud for hours mortally wounded before he died.
SAGER: Sager Sisters Remember
Catherine Sager , 13; Catherine was taken in by Rev. Mr. William M. Roberts, Superintendent of the Methodist Mission. While Mrs. Roberts was considered quite stern, Catherine always felt that the Roberts "did well by her". Three years after arriving at the Roberts home, on Oct 25, 1851, she married Clark Spencer Pringle and went to live near present day Salem, OR. Clark Pringle went on to become a Methodist circuit rider. They had a long and happy life together and were the parents of eight children. Catherine Sager Pringle died on August 10, 1910 at Spokane, WA while living with her youngest daughter, Lucia Pringle Collins. Catherine was a small woman and was only about 5' tall in height.
Elizabeth Sager , 10; Elizabeth lived in six different homes during the seven years from her arrival at Oregon City until her marriage in 1855. She moved from the home of Mrs. William Johnson to Mrs. Howland, then on to the Jacob Robb family. When Jacob Robb went to the gold fields in 1848 with William Abernethy, she moved with the family into Mrs. Abernethy's home. The summer of 1849 the family moved in with Mrs. Robb's father, Rev. E.E. Parrish. In the fall of 1850 Jacob Robb returned to take his family to California. Not wanting to go she went to live with the William H. Willson family. It did not work out because the Willsons "were so unkind to me I would not stay any longer". She then went to live with the Josiah Parrish family. Mrs. Parrish was a new and different experience for Elizabeth. According to Elizabeth, the poor woman's mental condition caused her to be quite unpredictable. She would be kind and solicious one moment and the next would berate her for the very same actions that had initially brought out the earlier kindness. At the invitation of her now married sister, she went to live with her until Aug 9, 1855 when she married William Fletcher Helm, a pioneer of 1845. He was a gentle and thoughtful husband and they had a long and happy life together. They were the parents of nine children. Elizabeth died July 19, 1925 at Portland, OR, ten years after the death of her husband.
Francis "Frank" Sager, 15, KILLED; Frank was in the school room when the massacre began. He helped all the children into the loft. There are several stories on how and when he came down from the loft. Some say he came down with the other children and some say he didn't come down until the other children were threatened. The most consistent is that he was shot and killed by Joe Lewis when he came down to comfort his terrified sisters. Frank had ran away from the mission and went to the valley not long after he first arrived. He did not like the strict rules after having been free on the plains. Rev. Griffin reminded him of his promise to his parents to look after his sisters and he returned to the mission. Rev. Griffin always felt like he had sent him to his death.
Henrietta Naomi Sager , 4; Henrietta was originally named Rosana after her maternal grandmother. After the death of their parents the older Sager children requested that she be named after them. Henrietta was taken in by the Morgan Kees family where she stayed 3 years. She then moved in with Catherine and her new husband. When an uncle, Solomon Sager, stopped to visit on his way to California with his troupe of entertainers she decided to join them. Although the troupe was made up mainly of family members her sisters were appalled at the idea. Her life from that point on was one that included several marriages and numerous travels. Her contact with her sisters became far and few. It is rumored that she was killed in California when she received a bullet meant for her husband.
John Sager, 17, KILLED; John was recovering from the measles at the time of the massacre. He was seated in the kitchen winding twine for brooms. He sprang from his chair to reach a nearby pistol and was shot when he attempted to defend Dr. Whitman. John was described as a quiet, conscientious boy who loved to write.
Louise Sager, 6; Louise Sager died Dec 5, 1847 after being ill. Having been without water and care following the massacre she succumbed to her illness.
Matilda Jane Sager, 8; Matilda stayed in the Willamette Valley with the Spaldings for a time. At some point it was decided that she should go to the home of William Geiger Jr. and his new bride. Matilda cried so hard when he came to get her that the move was postponed temporarily but eventually she had no choice. He ruled his house with an iron fist and religion and sin were never far from his mind. With strict and severe discipline he carried out his duties as a guardian but later on when Matilda was asked if she wanted someone else to handle her affairs she chose to have him continue as her representative. On June 5, 1855 Matilda married Lewis Mackey Hazlitt. He died June 14, 1863 of cancer while seeking treatment in San Francisco, CA. Matilda was left a widow with five children. She married Matthew Fultz in the fall of 1865 and they had three more children. In 1882 they moved to Farmington, WA and opened a hotel and several other businesses. Within a year she was a widow again. In 1889 she married David Delaney, a prosperous citizen of Farmington. Matilda died April 13, 1928.
Amos Sales, Adult, KILLED; emigrant of 1847; was ill with measles, was beat to death with slats from his bed several days after massacre. s/o John and Catherine Sales of Perry County, Ohio, born between 1820 and 1825; both parents died c1835. About 1845 Amos, a single man, and his married brother Jacob and family removed from Perry County to the Beacon area of Oskaloosa Township in Mahaska County, Iowa. Amos "of Mahaska County, Iowa" deeded an inherited fractional interest in 40 acres of farmland in Bearfield Township, Perry County, Ohio, to his brother Jacob, who then sold the full interest in 1846. The deed was recorded in Perry County, and it proves the relationship of Amos and Jacob to parents John and Catherine. In the spring of 1847 Amos joined the "Oskaloosa Company" as a teamster and headed for the Oregon Country. Part of the Company joined the train commanded by Capt. John William Bewley. In October 1847 Jacob left the Bewley train, as did some others, at the Whitman's Waiilatpu mission on the Walla Walla River. He fell ill at the mission (measles or typhoid) and when nearly recovered, he was killed by Cayuse Indians on December 8, about ten days after Marcus Whitman and his wife and others had been killed. [research on Amos Sales the work of William Archerd Sr.]
Judge L.W. Saunders, Adult, KILLED; member of the Oscaloosa Train of 1847; was hired as teacher to replace Andrew Rodgers; was stabbed to death as he ran from the school room toward the emigrant house to save his wife.
Mrs. Mary Saunders, Adult
Helen M. Saunders, 14
Phebe Saunders, 10
Alfred W. Saunders, 6
Nancy J. Saunders, 4
Mary A. Saunders, 2
Joseph Smith, 43, born c. 1804 in England, emigrated to Canada and then to NY where his oldest children were born. He moved to Illinois and then headed west in 1847. Joseph was hired to help operate the sawmill in the foothills of the Blue Mts. He escaped death at the hands of the Indians because he was English and not American like the other victims. After the massacre he moved with his family to California, back to Illinois, back to California and finally to Coos County, Oregon.
Anna E. (Shambrook) Smith, 23, was the second wife of Joseph Smith. She was born in Cambridge, England as was her brother George. George Shambrook accompanied the Smith family west in 1847 but had left the mission for the Willamette valley just days before the massacre.
Mary E. Smith, 15 Mary was the daughter of Joseph Smith and his first wife. By 1850 is back living with her family in Illinois and it appears that she was married to F.H. Hathaway.
William H. Smith, 11. William is believed to be the son of Joseph Smith and his first wife and is found in the 1850 census living with the family in IL. Most reports state that Joseph Smith was at the mission with his wife and five children. William is not documented as being at the mission. One possibility is that he went to the valley with his uncle George Shambrook.
Edwin Smith, 10 Edwin was the son of Joseph Smith and his first wife; because of the common name it has been difficult to trace Edwin and Charles Smith
Charles Smith, 7 Charles was the son of Joseph Smith and his first wife; because of the common name it has been difficult to trace Edwin and Charles Smith
Mortimer Smith, 4; Mortimer was the son of Joseph Smith and his first wife . It doesn't appear that he ever married.
Nelson Smith, 3; Nelson was the son of Joseph Smith and his first wife. He married Minnie Wilkins in 1893 and settled in Coos County, Oregon
Eliza Spalding, 10; believed to be the first white child born in the Oregon Territory; reunited with her family at Fort Walla Walla.
Joseph Stanfield, Adult, Stanfield was a French Canadian who had crossed the plains in 1846. After the massacre, Stanfield cleaned up the bodies of the death and buried them. It is hard to say if he was involved or just in a position where he was not able to do anything. At any rate, he was arrested on arrival in Oregon City on suspicion of having taken part in the massacre. At his trial before Judge Wheeler, it was revealed that he had tried to conceal a watch belonging to Mrs. Kimball and a considerable sum of money belonging to Mr. Hoffman. It was testified by the two widows that Joe had told them that he knew of the planned attack earlier in the day. He was convicted and sentenced to be sent to General Gilliam to be punished as thought proper. Upon the death of the general, Stanfield escaped and it was reported that he died in the California gold mines in 1849 or 1850.
Dr. Marcus Whitman, 44, KILLED
Narcissa Prentiss Whitman, 39, KILLED
Elam Young, Adult (MO); emigrant of 1847; hired to help operate the sawmill set up in the foothills of the Blue Mts.
Mrs. Irene Young, Adult
Daniel Young, 21
John Quincy Adams Young, 19
James Young, 24 KILLED; was killed the second day as he drove a wagon load of lumber toward the mission
Clark, son of Chief Tilokite
Cupup-Cupup (possibly also known as Green Cap)
Edward, son of Chief Tilokite
Isiaasheluckas (aka Wet Wolf, Wet Coyote, Frank Escaloom, Ish-al-hal, Ish-ish-kais-kais, Giaa-shetus-teas, Tsaiachalkis, Yo-he-kis-kis, I-sa-i-a-cha-lak-is)
Kiamasumkin (aka Panther's Coat, Quiamashoukin, Quiahmaysun, Left Hand)
Joe Lewis, Adult Canadian Indian; an ex-employee of the Hudson Bay Co., was taken in at the mission when the emigrant train, that he had joined at Fort Hall, would no longer allow him to travel with them. He was highly disliked and was a persistent trouble maker. His spreading of lies laid the groundwork for the resulting massacre. In later years Elizabeth Sager Helm stated, "Joe Lewis, the Catholic halfbreed negro and Indian who incited the massacre, was employed by Dr. Whitman to make coffins for the Indians and it kept him pretty busy."
Tamsucky (aka Tum-suc-kee, Sakiaph, Wap-tash-tak-mahl, Feather Cap)
Tolokite (aka Tiloukaikt, Teloukaike, Teloquoit, Te-lo-kit, Crawfish That Walks Forward, Victorious Homecoming Warrior); Chief and leader of band that attacked mission.
Tomahas (aka Tomakus, the murderer, Tau-mau-lish, Pierced by throwing)
Wai-e-Cat (aka One that flies); son of Tamsucky
Others Associated With the Massacre or the Aftermath
Chief Beardy, aka (Chief Sue), was Chief of a band of the Tenino Tribe that had summer camp at Celilo Falls and wintered on the Deschutes. Arrived at the mission at the time of the massacre and attempted to stop the slaughter. Was derided and ignored by the murderers but was later able to provide a small bit of protection for the survivors.
Finley, Nicholas, Adult, 30, (c1816-aft 1886); s/o Jacques Raphael "Jocko" Finlay and, probably, Teshwentichina (Spokane). Nicholas married Suzette (Josephte), daughter of a Cayuse father and Palouse mother, on 4 Mar 1848 in St.Francis Regis, Washington.He was engaged in hunting and trapping at an early age for the various Fur Companies in the Northwest. In 1846 he lived near Tshimakain Mission. The missionaries Walker and Eells mentioned him in their journals. Sometime prior to 1847, he moved south to work for Marcus Whitman at the Waiilatpu Mission. He lived in a lodge near the mission. Although there is no evidence that he was involved in the actual massacre it has been noted that his lodge served as a headquarters for the ringleaders and their followers. He escorted the Manson boys and David Malin Cortez to Fort Walla Walla after the massacre. After riding for a short time with the Cayuse, he and his brothers contacted the Commissioners riding with the troops and asked for peace. In later years he led a quiet life in Montana. [information provided by Chalk Courchane]
Five Crows, Cayuse Chief (aka Pahkotos-goh-goh, Hezekiah, lived on the Umatilla River
Hill, Tom, Indian
Jackson, Mr., was working at Lapwai with Spaldings
Johnson, Mary: teacher, emigrant of 1845 and niece of Hezekiah Johnson; was living at Lapwai with Spaldings and was among those taken to Oregon City
Peu-Peu-Mox-Mox, Walla Walla Chief (aka Yellow Bird, Yellow Serpent), head of the Wallulapum band
Stickus, Cayuse Chief (aka Isickus, Esticus), lived on the Umatilla River near Five Crows and Young Chief
Young Chief, Cayuse Chief (aka Tauitau, Awahitin, Ta-wa-toy, Francis Xavier, Taoteway), lived on the Umatilla River
Whitman Massacre Links
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